Thursday, January 9, 2014




Keith D. Leslie

Indus Institute

January 9th, 2014


Nepal's PR election included 335 seats (58%) of total elected CA seats, while the FPTP election included 240 (42%) of the total elected CA seats. There are still 26 CA seats, however, that are to be nominated by the Council of Ministers based on the criteria of exceptional public service as well as  including ethnic-caste communities not represented either by the FPTP or PR elections. 
Although, after the 2008 CA the political parties merely shared those designated 26 seats based on their percentage of their elected CA seats and handed the CA seats to their party loyalists.
The purpose of a PR system is to provide proportionality and inclusion in the election process, particularly as a FPTP system does not necessarily produce either proportionality or inclusion of more marginalized communities. The FPTP vote, by itself, almost always creates disproportional results between the number of seats won and the number of votes received. Therefore, proportionality, is better maintained by a well-organized PR system as each party gets its share of seats proportionally.  Some twenty countries use a form of the PR election. 
By the final extended deadline of 5 pm on December 30th, all 30 parties winning PR seats submitted their PR lists to the Election Commission with the exception of FSP-N and MJF-N.  FSP and MJF-N submitted their final lists later that week.

The EC gave the parties three additional days to make amendments in their list of candidates, if it was found that they did not meet the necessary quota requirements. The three-day grace period ended on January 3rd, 2014.

Nepali Congress: The NC won 91 out of 335 PR seats (27.2% of the total PR) along with 105 FPTP constituencies (43.8% of the total FPTP seats) for a total of 196 CA seats (34.1%) of the 575 nominated to-date.  Two NC leaders won from two constituencies each, requiring a re-election in one of those constituencies at a later date. The party had submitted a closed list with 335 names for the PR seats.

Of the NC PR nominees, only 24 of the 91 were in the 2008 CA-Parliament. Only 38 of the total 196 NC CA members were in the previous CA.  (See Appendix for the full list of nominees.)

Although in 2013 the NC earned 105 FPTP CA seats with about 2.5 million votes, in the 2008 CA election, the NC won only 37 seats from its 2.3 m. votes (due to the disproportionality of the FPTP election).

The NC identified four selection criteria for PR candidates including a candidate’s contribution to the party; ability to present the party’s ideology and policy appropriately; ability to impact on development of the party’s organization; and regional balance in PR candidate selection. It was reported that the senior leaders, Sushil Koirala and Sher Bahadur Deuba, shared 60% and 40% of the PR seats, respectively.

Although the party said it would include leaders from the 23 districts where the party failed to win FPTP seats while selecting PR candidates, no one was selected from Darchula, Dolakha and Dailekh -- whereas 8 candidates from Dhanusha and 5 from Banke were chosen, respectively the home districts of CWC member Bimalendra Nidhi and party President Koirala.

UML: The UML won 84 out of 335 PR seats (25.1% of the total PR) along with 91 FPTP seats (37.9% of the total FPTP seats) for a total of 175 CA seats (30.4%) of the 575 seats named to-date.  

In 2013 the UML gained 91 FPTP seats from about 2.4 m. votes compared to 33 FPTP seats from 2.2 m. votes in 2008 (again, due to the lack of proportionality in the FPTP election results).

But this time there has been serious dissension in the party about the PR names selected. Former Speaker Subas Nembang said the leadership made a mistake by not rewarding candidates whose efforts got the party significant votes, like former student leaders Ram Kumar Jhakri, Rajendra Rai and Thakur Gaire.  (See Appendix for the full list of nominees.)

Also, in opposition to the stated criteria of not electing two members from one family, UML leader Amrit Kumar Bohara and his wife, Asta Laxmi Shakya, were selected as PR members.

In Solu Khumbu, 40 members of the UML district committee tendered their resignation because the party failed to represent the district in the CA. In Sunsari, UML ethnic wings padlocked the party office to register their dissent against the PR list. At the central level, cadres criticized the party for promoting groupism and nepotism.

Also, businesspeople, Ichchha Raj Tamang, Rajya Laxmi Golchha and Mahendra Serchan, made the list while party faithful, Khagraj Adhikari, Jagrit Bhetwal and Pradeep Nepal, did not.

UCPN-M:  The UCPN-M won 54 PR seats (16.1% of the total PR seats) and 26 FPTP (10.8%) of the total 240 FPTP seats for a total of 80 CA seats (13.9%) of the 575 named to-date.  

In 2008, the UCPN-M won 50% of the total FPTP seats with about 30% of the votes and earned a similar number under the PR segment. In total, it acquired about 38% of the total seats with 30% of the votes.

The party made its Central Committee members sign a blank paper that the party leadership later filled with the names for their PR CA membership. The UCPN-M Chairman Dahal, Baburam Bhattarai, Narayan Kaji Shrestha and Post Bahadur Bogati sought to finalize the names of 54 PR candidates (16.1% of the total PR seats) – but the final decisions were made by Chairman Dahal, according to the others.  (See Appendix for the full list of nominees.)

The party authorized names on the basis of the five-point criteria, including: active in the party, injured in the People´s War, family of disappeared and martyrs, and priority in districts where the party won no FPTP seat. The criteria for disqualification included: PR MPs in the past, other political appointments or other public post, non-cooperation with the party’s FPTP candidates during the election and less priority for districts where the party won seats under the FPTP.

However, 11 UCPN-M leaders from Karnali, including recently elected MP Mahendra Bahadur Shahi quit the party to express their objection to the lack of proper representation for the region in the new CA. UCPN-M leaders chose only Durga Bahadur Raut from the Karnali region.

Other internal party criticisms of the PR list included:

* Picking Police IGP Rabindra Pratap Shah who supported the king during the insurgency.

* Picking Ushakiran Ansari who is ex-UML minister of Salim Miya Ansari’s daughter.

* Picking Ashok Jaisawal, who did not support the party´s FPTP candidate.

* Failing to give PR berths for 20 districts, including Nawalparasi, Tehrathum and Bhojpur.

* Including more than 2 MPs from six districts, e.g. Sunsari, Makwanpur, Morang and Siraha.

* Giving PR seats to 8 districts that had 1 FPTP MP, including Gorkha, Rukum and Kailali.

RPP-N:  The Rastriya Prajatantra Party-Nepal finalized their 24 PR seats (7.2% of the total PR seats). The 24 names include: Bikram Bahadur Thapa, Bhaskar Bhadra, Ram Kumar Subba, Sushil Kumar Shrestha, Shayandra Bantawa, Ms. Kunti Kumari Shahi, Dinesh Shrestha, Dilnath Giri, Ms. Leela Devi Shrestha, Resham Bahadur Lama, Ganga Prasad Yadav, Ms. Kamala Devi Sharma, Biraj Bista (ex-panchayat minister Keshare Bdr Bista’s son), Babina Moktan Lawati, (ex-panchayat minister Padma Sundar Lawoti’s daughter-in-law) Ms. Rejeshwori Devi, Dhano Mahara, Shyam Sundar Tiwadewal, Sita Luitel (Gyawali), Shree Kanti Pasi, Kanta Bhattarai, Raj Kumar Agrawal, Ram Dulari Chaudhary and Bhakta Bahadur Bishwakarma (Khapangi).

RPP-N chose 3-5 women/20 men; 5 Madhesi, 4 Brahmin, 4 Chhetri, 4 Newar, 4 IPs, 1 Tharu, 1 Dalit and 1 Unknown.

MJF-D: Madhesi Janadhikar Forum-Democratic, the fifth largest party, has 10 PR seats. The Bijay Kumar Gachchhadar-led party selected Ms. Aasha Chaturvedi, Dr Baburam Pokharel, Ms. Gita Rana, Dr. Subodh Pokharel, Din Bandhu Agrawal, Ms. Ramani Ram, Pawan Kumar Sarda, Ms. Sumitra Tharuni, Yogendra Chaudhary, and Ms. Kalpana Chaudhary.

Baburam Pokharel and Rana are the chiefs of PABSON and NPABSON, private school organizations, while Din Bandhu Agrawal and Subodh Pokharel are businessmen.

MJF-D chose 5 women/5 men; 3 Tharu, 2 Brahmin, 2 Madhesi, 2 Dalit and 1 IP.

TMLP: Tarai Madhes Loktantrik Party has 7 PR seats and selected Dr Bijay Kumar Singh, Ekval Ahmed Shah, Ms. Indra Jha, Ms. Mina Chaudhary, Kedar Nandan Chaudhary, Ramesh Prasad Kurmi, and Raj Kumari Gadariya. Indra Jha is the wife of Energy Minister Umakant Jha.

TMLP chose 2 women/5 men; 4 Madhesi, 2 Tharu and 1 Muslim.

Sadbhawana: The SP secured 5 PR seats and will choose from: Co-Chairman Laxman Lal Karna, Nanda Singh Chaudhary, businessman Bimal Kedia, Ms. Madhavi Rani Sah and Ms. Sail Devi Mahato (Chairman Rajendra Mahato’s wife).

Sadbhawana chose 2 women/3 men including 4 Madhesi and 1 Tharu

CPN-ML:  The CPN-ML will send 5 PR seats to the new CA, including: CPN-ML General Secretary CP Mainali, Aindra Sundar Nemwang, Shiva Chandra Chaudhary, Ms. Kalasha Mahara and Ms. Kamala BK.  The party did not win any FPTP seats.

CPN-ML selected 2 women/3 men including 2 Brahmins, 1 Limbu, 1 Tharu and 1 Dalit.

FSP: The Federal Socialist Party Nepal sent 5 PR seats to the EC. The FSPN’s final list includes party Chairman Ashok Kumar Rai, Vice-chairman DB Nepali, Radha Timilsena, Urmila Sah and Kashiki Siddhique.

FSP selected 2 women/3 men including 1 IP, 1 Dalit, 1 Brahmin, 1 Madhesi and 1 Muslim.


NMSP:  The Sharat Singh Bhandari-led National Madhes Socialist Party has finalized its list of PR candidates. The Central Committee meeting recommended Dinesh Sah, CC member Dharmendra Sah, and advisor Nirzala Raut.

NMSP selected 1 woman/2 men including 2 Madhesis and 1 Muslim.

RJM: The Rastriya Janamorcha will send Chairman Chitra Bahadur KC (71), Vice Chairperson Ms. Durga Paudel (42) and Ms. Meena Pun (40) to the CA. The party garnered 92,387 votes under the PR, but no seat under the FPTP.  They submitted a list of 100 PR candidates at the EC. In the first CA, the party had 4 seats, 1 from the FPTP and 3 from the PR.

RJM selected 2 women/1 man including 1 Brahmin, 1 Chhetri and 1 Magar (IP).


Tharuhat Terai Party-Nepal: TTP selected its party leaders Gopal Dahit and Ms. Ganga Tharu (Satgauwa), i.e., 1 woman/1 man including 2 Tharus.

TMSP: Mahendra Raya Yadav-led Tarai Madhes Sadbhawana Party selected America Kumari and Narendra Kumar Sah Kalwar, i.e., 1 woman/1 man including 2 Madhesis.

Rastriya Janamukti Party: RJP submitted the names of its 2 candidates, but its application was not accepted to begin with since there were some “discrepancies” in the party’s application.


1.       Akhanda Nepal Party nominated Chairman Kumar Khadka for its sole CA seat.

2.       Federal Sadbhawana Party Chairman Anil Jha, who lost the election from his home in Rautahat, awarded the party’s only PR seat to his wife, Dr. Dimpal Jha, saying it was the best way to avoid any future splits in the party (as FSP split from SP).

3.       Janajagaran Party Nepal Chairman Lok Mani Dhakal was selected for the sole CA seat.

4.       Khumbuwan Rastriya Morcha Nepal nominated its Chairman, Ram Kumar Rai, for its sole CA seat believing he would be effective in ending ethnic discrimination.

5.       MJF-Republican Chairman Raj Kishore Yadav, who lost in Siraha 6, picked his wife Sarita Yadav for the party’s solitary PR seat explaining that he had made a huge contribution to the party. The FSP and MPRF-R earned one PR seat each but failed to win an FPTP seat.

6.       Nepali Janta Dal nominated Chairman Hari Charan Sah as its sole CA member under the PR category even though police have filed a case against Sah on corruption. The party won a single seat in the 2008 CA when Sah nominated his daughter Gayatri Sah -- but her CA membership was suspended after she misused her diplomatic passport.

7.       Sanghiya Loktantrik Rastriya Munch (Tharuhat) selected its chief Rukmini Chaudhary to become a CA member a second time even though her party won only one seat.

8.       Madhes Samata Party nominated its chairman, Megh Raj Sahani, for its sole PR berth.

9.       Nepaa Rastriya Party nominated senior leader, Laxman Rajbhanshi, for its single seat as party Chairman Keshav Man Shakya lost the poll from Kathmandu 9.

10.   Socialist Peoples’ Party (SPP) nominated Chairman Prem Bahadur Singh, who served in the first CA. He said, "I played an important role in the past CA but there is unfinished work, so I need to be there to complete that work.”  The party won one seat in 2008.


Chairmen First:  Some of the smaller parties also nominated their chairmen or general-secretaries for PR seats, especially parties that have only PR seat.  The chairmen who will represent their parties in the new CA include:

1.       CP Mainali                           CPN-ML                                                              5 PR seats

2.       Hari Charan Sah                Nepal Janta Dal                                                 1 PR seat

3.       Kumar Khadka                   Akhanda Nepal                                                 1 PR seat

4.       Lok Mani Dhakal               Janjagaran                                                          1 PR seat

5.       Megh Raj Sahani              Madhes Samata                                                               1 PR seat                             

6.       Prem Bahadur Singh       Socialist People’s Party                                  1 PR seat

7.       Ram Kumar Rai                  Khumbuwan Rastriya Morcha                    1 PR seat

8.       Rukmini Chaudhary         Sanghiya Loktantrik Rastriya Munch        1 PR seat

Nearest & Dearest:  Some political party chairmen and leaders nominated their wives for PR seats, a few after losing their own FPTP elections.  This includes:

1.       Anil Jha                              Dr. Dhimpal Jha                 Federal Sadbhavana       1 PR seat

2.       Raj Kishore Yadav            Ms. Sarita Yadav               MJF-Republican                      1 PR seat

3.       Rajendra Mahato             Ms. Shail Devi Mahato   Sadbhavana                       3 PR seats

4.       Sher Bdr Deuba                Ms. Arzu Rana Deuba                     NC                          91 PR seats

5.       Khum Bdr Khadka            Ms. Sheela Sharma Khadka         NC                          91 PR seats

Artists & Other Strangers:  Nepali film actor Bhuwan KC expressed his dissatisfaction over the list of PR candidates submitted by the UML. KC, who gave up the ticket to contest the CA FPTP election from Kathmandu 1, was assured of a PR seat. KC said he would remain loyal to the party even though he could not be inducted as a PR candidate -- owing to some ’technical’ reasons.

Women:  The political parties have selected 162 women for the new CA under the PR system, i.e., 48.4% of the total PR seats. Earlier 10 women were elected through the FPTP process, i.e. 4.2% of the total FPTP seats (95.8% were won by men). Therefore, the number of women now stands at 172 or 29.9% of the current total of CA nominees.  In comparison, 403 men (70.1%) will be in the new CA, including 230 from the FPTP and 173 from PR seats. These totals exclude the names for the final 26 CA seats that have not yet been selected.

Indigenous: Nepal Federation of Indigenous Nationalities has demanded that Janajatis be appointed to the remaining 26 CA seats. According to NEFIN, among the 59 registered Janajati groups of Nepal, only 20 are represented in the new CA. The new CA has 183 Janajati members (31.8% of the current total), while there were 218 (36.3%)IPs  in the first CA.

Dalits:  The Dalit leaders of different political parties initiated a United Dalit struggle to institutionalize the achievements made by the first CA. UCPN-M Bishwo Bhakta Duwal, CPN-M advisor Tilak Pariyar and Chairperson of the National Dalit Commission, Sushila Shreepaili, noted that a struggle was needed to ensure the 49 Dalit CA members make a Dalit-friendly constitution. In the 2008 CA, there were 50 Dalit parliamentarians (8.13 %) but there are only 40 (6.6%) this time.
OBCs: The Bharat Prasad Mahato-led Other Backward Class Federation has demanded seats from those the Council of Ministers will select. Mahato said the Cabinet should induct at least five Other Backward Classes to secure OBC’s rights. “Neither the FTPT nor PR ensured representation of candidates who are committed to the identity of the OBCs.” Mahato said.

Disabled: The National Federation of the Disabled-Nepal announced protests demanding representation in the CA. The disabled community demands that four persons with disabilities should be included in the new CA. In the previous CA, Indra Maya Gurung of the CPN-Maoist and Raghav Bir Joshi of Nepal Communist Party (Samyukta), both disabled, received. Unlike in the previous CA, no party nominated a disabled persons under the PR list this time.

Most Favored Districts:  The home districts of senior NC leaders in the MW Region gained 13 CA PR seats, including 5 from Banke, NC President Sushil Koirala´s home district. Moreover, all five are from the same constituency where Koirala contested the November election.  In Surkhet, the NC won all three FPTP constituencies and the party selected two PR candidates--Lal Bahadur Ghale and Khadak Bahadur Basyal -- from the district, as well.  

5 PR members from Banke, NC President Sushil Koirala home district

5 PR members from Jhapa, UML leader Jhalanath Khanal home district

4 PR members from Dang, NC leader Khum Bdr Khadka home district

4 PR members from Dang, UML leaders Pokharel and Gyawali home district

3 PR members from Bardiya & Pyuthan, UML leader Bam Dev Gautam home districts

2 PR members from Surkhet, NC leader Purna Bahadur Khadka home district

Single Seat Party Gender Imbalance: Three of the 10 parties that won single seats in the election under the PR category nominated women candidates for their CA seats. Of these, two got the opportunity as their husbands, who are also the respective party chiefs, lost the election. The third one, Rukmini Chaudhary, is the party chief.

Karnali: The five districts in Karnali Zone (Kalikot, Humla, Dolpa, Mugu & Jumla) are among the poorest and most underdeveloped areas of the country. Each district is a single constituency. Out of the total of 5 seats under the FPTP, the NC won 2 seats, the UML 2 and UCPN-M won 1. NC included 1 PR candidate while UML picked 2 candidates. Thus, NC will have 3 MPs from the Karnali, while UML will have 4 and UCPN-M only 2. Karnali is the largest zone in terms of area and occupies 15% of the country.

Kanchanpur:  11 people will represent Kanchanpur in the new CA, including 10 Brahmin/Chhetri, 3 women and 1 IP. The NC will send 6 MPs while the UML, UCPN-M, RPP, CPN (ML), and CPN-United 1 each. The NC recommended Tarani Dutta Chataut and Baldev Bohara under the PR and NP Saud, Ramesh Lekhak, Bahadur Thapa, and Diban Singh under the FPTP. Kripa Rana of UML, Durga Khanal of the UCPN-M, Anandi Panta of RPP, Kalasha Mahara of the CPN (ML), and Jaya Dev Joshi of the CPN-United have been selected. No party selected a Dalit from the district.


The political parties are seeking to reach an understanding to own the decisions taken by the previous CA Thematic Committees, the full CA and/or the CA Dispute Resolution Subcommittee.

The new CA will have fewer tasks if the parties accept the decisions taken by the earlier CA Dispute Resolution Subcommittee headed by UCPN-M Dahal that included Sher Bahadur Deuba, Ram Chandra Paudel, Jhalanath Khanal, Madhav Kumar Nepal and Bijay Kumar Gachchhadar. The Subcommittee reduced 200 contentious issues to 14. However, the CA was dissolved in May 2012 before these decisions were endorsed by the CA Constitutional Committee.

Mukunda Sharma, CA secretariat Spokesman, said the process of owning the earlier decisions is unclear because the new CA regulations and Thematic Committees will be finalized later. The RPP-N, which opposes decisions made by the first CA on secularism, a republic and a federal state, insists on the CA starting anew because the new House is sovereign in its own right.

CA Calendar: GoN officials say finalizing new CA regulations and formation of Thematic Committees may take months. Between 2008-12 the political parties revised the CA calendar over a dozen times while the original two-year tenure of the CA was extended to four years. In 2008, it took 6 months to elect the CA Chairman, finalize the regulations and form the Thematic Committees. The first CA poll was held on April 10, 2008 while the first CA was convened on May 27, 2008 -- six weeks after the CA election.


NC: The NC Parliamentary Board (PB) discussed whether to include the industrialist- businessmen who supported the party financially. Despite pressure from some of the leaders, the PB denied seats to five major party ‘donors’, including: Tilak Ranabhat, Khuma Prasad Aryal, Mahesh Jaju, Shashi Kant Agrawal and Dibyamani Rajbhandari.

UML: UML leaders have been criticized for selecting business elites like Rajya Laxmi Golchha and Ichharaj Tamang, but failing to include student-youth leaders who also represent ethnic and indigenous communities. Party members claim Golchha and Tamang were given PR seats as they offered huge sums of money during the election.

Ilam: Dilendra Nemwang, who received 90 votes in Ilam 3 constituency, says he spent 963,000=/ during the election campaign and submitted his expenditure detail to the District Election Office.  Whereas UML Chairman Jhala Nath Khanal who won from Ilam says he spent only 915,000=/ in his winning campaign. Local human rights activists, however, believe the major parties are deceiving the public and submit much less than what they actually spent.

Kapilvastu 4:  Jaya Ballav Bhattarai contested the CA election as an independent from Kapilvastu-4. As per the legal provision, he submitted his  expenditures to the EC and reported  he spent Rs. 547,300. Divided by the total number of votes he gained, each vote cost him nearly Rs 80,000 -- as he got only seven votes. Another independent candidate, Shiba Pujan Kurmi, from the same constituency got 17 votes and stated that he spent Rs 547,000.

Parsa: 17 candidates submitted election expenditure at the District Election Office as per the provision requiring candidates to submit their expenditure details within 35 days after the vote counting. According to the DEO, however, only two of the five candidates elected to the CA have submitted their expenditure details. These include Raj Kumar Gupta and Jay Prakash Tharu, both of the UML from Constituency 3 and 5.  Gupta spent Rs. 853,000 while Tharu spent Rs. 675,000. 

As per the EC, a candidate may have spent not more than Rs 1 million rupees in the election.


HLPC: The leaders of the major political parties, once again, expressed their commitment in their latest four-point deal to prepare a draft new constitution in the next six months and promulgating the new constitution within a year.

UCPN-M:  Chairman Dahal promised to submit a plan to restructure the party’s organization and control malpractices. A weak organizational structure and extravagant lifestyle of leaders and cadres were said to be the main reason behind the party’s defeat. Its structure at the grassroots has to be renewed to prepare for the next general convention to elect all party representatives. In July 2009, the party constituted a commission to unearth the undisclosed sources of luxurious lives of some leaders and cadres, but there has not been any report yet.

CPN-M: In a preparatory move to launch the ‘people’s revolt’, the CPN-Maoist formed a ‘Unified People’s Committee’ (UPC) and revived organizational structures active during the ‘people’s war’. These UPC will work in parallel to local bodies, comprised sister wings of the party. In 2001, the then CPN-Maoist party had formed a similar structure called the Revolutionary People’s Council. Chairman Mohan Baidya said that only a people's revolution could bring transformation in society, so the CA must be dissolved to pave the way for a people's revolution.

UML: UML´s 84 candidates nominated as CA PR members has raised dissatisfaction among the party. Members expressed their anger for not selecting deserving candidates and promoting some new faces. Social media was filled with criticism for eliminating popular student wing leaders such as Rajendra Rai, Ram Kumari Jhankri and Thakur Gaire, who fought against king Gyanendra and led the 2006 people´s movement to establish a republic.

RPP-N/NRPP:  20 RPP-N Central Committee members temporarily left the party to form the Nepali Rastriya Prajatantra Party (NRPP), led by RPP-N central committee member, Tanka Dhakal, ex-minister during the royal regime. According to EC rules, at least 40% CC members can split a party. The new party demanded PR seats in proportion to the split and said they were compelled to after PR names did not change despite frequent requests.  “We were erroneous in splitting the party without properly discussing the matters among ourselves,” said Dhakal. However, according to the EC, a party may not split until the election results are finalized.

MJF-D:  Madhesi Janadhikar Forum Loktantrik leader Rameshwor Raya Yadav warned that party Chairman Bijaya Kumar Gachhadhar would be removed from the post if he did not change the name list of the PR candidates submitted to the EC. “We will not set up another party. We have given ultimatum to the party chairman Bijaya Kumar Gachhadhar. We will change the party Chairman if he does not change both his attitude as well as the name list,” he said.

FSPN:  The Federal Socialist Party Nepal said that a major reason behind the party´s poor poll performance was due to lack of hard work by party leaders and workers.  Central Committee members suggested the leaders work focus on the grassroots level. Participants blamed the lack of coordination, lack of internal management, party top brass not contesting for FPTP seats and weak finances for the electoral loss. Neither Chairman Ashok Rai nor General Secretary Rajendra Shrestha contested FPTP seats in the elections.

Madhesi Parties: Three Madhesi parties -- MJF-Nepal (Upendra Yadav), TMDP (Mahantha Thakur) and Sadbhavana (Rajendra Mahato) -- have agreed to create a unified Madhesi force. However, Madhes parties in the past have had splits within splits, one reason for their defeat in the election. Issues of leadership modalities, name of the unified party, its manifesto, policies and structure have not been discussed.  But, if MJF-N, TMDP and SP unite, they would have 26 CA seats which would make them the 4th largest party in the CA -- two more than RPP-Nepal.

The MJF-Democratic, the largest of the Madhesi parties in terms of CA members, is not involved in these unity talks yet.

NMSP: Dissident leaders of the Sharat Singh Bhandari-led National Madhes Socialist Party (NMSP) accused the party of providing a PR seat to a US Green Card holder, Nirjala Raut.  They said the PR list was not finalized in the Central Committee. Legal experts said it would be illegal to provide CA berth to a US Green Card holder. But Raut said, "I am a Nepali citizen; I have always been a Nepali citizen. I always held a Nepali passport." Chief EC Nil Kantha Upreti said that the EC cannot invalidate a candidate who holds a Nepali citizenship card and has his/her name in the new electoral rolls with photographs and biometrics.  He stated that the issue of holding double citizenship invokes the concerned laws and should be decided by the CA court. 

NEFIN: Chairman of the Nepal Federation of Indigenous Nationalities, Nagendra Kumar Kumal, said issues raised by NEFIN were wrongly publicized. Kumal said they raised the issue of ethnic identity but not of ethnic states. Kumal said the state was indifferent towards the issues of indigenous nationalities and even though the GoN signed ILO Convention 169 it was not implemented. He said that multiple identity-based federal states were needed and argued that federating the country on the basis of multiple identities would not result in its disintegration.


President or PM?  The incumbent government shelved an ordinance to clear the way for the President to call the first meeting of the CA.  The Cabinet only forwarded the ordinance to clear the hurdle in chairing the first sitting of the CA, but not the second ordinance proposed transferring the constitutional right to call the first CA meeting from the PM to the President.

The President’s Office and the NC believe that only the President should be allowed to call the first CA meeting. The Cabinet decision is likely to create problems between the head of state and the government. Though the IC states that the oldest CA member will chair the house until its chairman is elected, it is not clear how the oldest member takes the oath.

The ordinance passed by the Cabinet removes the legal question by stating the oldest CA member will take the oath from the President before chairing the House. The same CA member will also administer the oath to all the 601 CA members.

According to the GoN, the constitution states that the PM will call the first sitting of the CA which is a right currently enjoyed by Interim Election Government Chairman Khil Raj Regmi. Therefore, they believe there is no need to amend the IC through the removal of constitutional difficulties. The President’s Office believes that due the “lapse” in the constitution, citing international practices and protocol, the President should call the CA meeting. The recently revived High-level Political Committee discussed the issue.  The case, however, has now gone to the Supreme Court which should rule by January 13th in order for the CA to open by January 24th (21 days after the official EC announcement of the CA election winners).

Eldest CA Member The GoN approved an ordinance amending the CA Election Act stating a provision that the senior-most CA member after taking oath of office and secrecy from the President will swear in all the other CA members until it elects its chair. The Council of Ministers endorsed the draft of the ordinance and presented it to the President for his approval as per Clause 80 of the Interim Constitution. Ex-prime minister, Surya Bahadur Thapa, 86, of the RPP is the senior-most member on the PR list.

Elderly FPTP winners include: 

    Surya Bahadur Thapa, 86              RPP

·         Mahendra Ray Yadav, 76              Tarai Madhes Sadbhawana Party

    Sushil Koirala, 74                               Nepali Congress

    Radhechandra Yadav, 73               Nepali Congress

    Narayan Man Bijukchhe, 73         Nepal Workers and Peasants Party



Agni Kharel                                        UML                                                      CA Member & Lawyer

Bishwo Bhakta Duwal                      UCPN-M                                               Dalit leader

Hridayesh Tripathy                          TMLP                                                     Vice-chairman

Kamleshwor Yadav                          MJF-D                                                  Chairman, Student Wing

Khimlal Devkota                               UCPN-M                                              CA Member & Lawyer

Mukunda Sharma                            CA Secretariat                                   Spokesman 

Narayan Man Bijukchhe                  Nepal Workers Peasants Party   Chairman

Nasir Siddiqui                                     MPRF-D                                               Vice-Chairman

Ms. Pampha Bhushal                      CPN-Maoist                                        Spokesperson

Pradip Gyawali                                  CPN-UML                                            Publicity Department chief

Dr. Ram Sharan Mahat                   NC                          CWC member & former Finance Minister

Ram Sahay Yadav                             MPRF-N                                               General-Secretary

Rameshwar Ray Yadav                   MPRF-D                                               Vice-chairman

Sarvendra Nath Shukla                  TMLP                                                     Spokesperson

Sushila Shreepaili                       National Dalit Commission          Chairperson

Tilak Pariyar                                     CPN-M                                                   Advisor

Kaviraj Timalsina                            Nepali Janta Dal                                                Party Vice-chairman 


NC PR candidates submitted to the Election Commission –  91 Names

1.       Anita Devkota                                                   Brahmin                               Female

2.       Chandra Devi Joshi                                          Brahmin                               Female

3.       Ishwari Neupane                                             Brahmin                               Female?

4.       Kamala Panta                                                     Brahmin                               Female

5.       Laxmi Devi Bhandari                                       Brahmin                               Female

6.       Leela Koirala                                                       Brahmin                               Female

7.       Mahalaxmi Upadhyay (Dina)                       Brahmin                               Female

8.       Sarita Prasain                                                     Brahmin                               Female

9.       Sujata Koirala                                                     Brahmin                               Female                 GPK’s daughter

10.   Tarini Dutta Chataut                                        Brahmin                               Female

11.   Dhruva Wagle                                                    Brahmin                               Male

12.   Man Mohan Bhattarai                                    Brahmin                               Male

13.   Ananda Prasad Dhungana                            Brahmin                               Male

14.   Badri Prasad Pandey                                       Brahmin                               Male

15.   Minendra Prasad Rijal                                    Brahmin                               Male

16.   Prakash Sharan Mahat                                   Brahmin                               Male

17.   Ram Chandra Pokharel                                  Brahmin                               Male

18.   Ashok Koirala                                                     Brahmin                               Male

19.   Ganesh Prasad Bimali                                     Brahmin                               Male

20.   Dipshikha Sharma Dhakal                             Brahmin                               Male

21.   Sheela Sharma Khadka                                  Chhetri                                 Female

22.   Ambika Basnet                                                  Chhetri                                 Female

23.   Arzu Rana Deuba                                             Chhetri                                 Female                 SBD’s wife

24.   Rita Shahi                                                            Chhetri                                 Female

25.   Bal Dev Bohora                                                 Chhetri                                 Male

26.   Bharat Bahadur Khadka                                 Chhetri                                 Male

27.   Gyanendra Bahadur Karki                            Chhetri                                 Male

28.   Jagadishwar Narasingh KC                            Chhetri                                 Male

29.   Khadga Bahadur Basyal                                 Chhetri                                 Male

30.   Madhu Shahi Thakuri                                     Chhetri                                 Male

31.   Kalpana Sob                                                       Dalit                                       Female

32.   Asha BK                                                              Dalit                                       Female

33.   Bishnu Maya Pariyar                                       Dalit                                       Female

34.   Sangeeta Mandal (Dhanuk)                         Dalit                                       Female

35.   Sujata Pariyar                                                    Dalit                                       Female

36.   Man Bahadur Bishwakarma                         Dalit                                       Male

37.   Meen Bahadur Bishwakarma                      Dalit                                       Male

38.   Jiwan Pariyar                                                      Dalit                                       Male

39.   Mainku Lal Balmiki                                           Dalit                                       Male

40.   Narbhan Kami                                                   Dalit                                       Male

41.   Kumari Laxmi Rai                                              IP (Rai)                                  Female

42.   Usha Gurung                                                     IP (Gurung)                        Female

43.   Pushpa Lata Lama                                            IP (Tamang)                        Female

44.   Binda Devi Ale (Rana)                                     IP (Magar)                           Female

45.   Mahendra Kumari Limbu                              IP (Limbu)                           Female

46.   Ratna Sherchan                                             IP (Thakali)                          Female

47.   Sita Gurung                                                        IP (Gurung)                        Female

48.   Amrit Lal Rajbanshi                                          IP (Rajbansi)?                    Male

49.   Dhan Raj Gurung                                              IP (Gurung)                        Male

50.   Amar Singh Pun                                               IP (Magar)                           Male

51.   Dil Bahadur Gharti                                           IP (Magar)                           Mal

52.   Dilman Pakhrin                                                  IP (Tamang)                        Male

53.   Jhul Bahadur Ale                                              IP (Magar)                           Male

54.   Kul Bahadur Gurung                                       IP (Gurung)                        Male

55.   Lal Bahadur Ghale                                            IP (Gurung)                        Male

56.   Mohan Kumar Rai                                            IP (Rai)                                  Male

57.   Narendra Bikram Nembang                         IP (Limbu)                           Male

58.   Surya Man Gurung                                          IP (Gurung)                        Male

59.   Bhotani Devi Khawas                                      Madhesi                              Female

60.   Chitra Lekha Yadav                                          Madhesi                              Female         ex-Deputy Speaker

61.   Kabita Kumari Sardar                                      Madhesi                              Female

62.   Minaxi Jha                                                           Madhesi                              Female?

63.   Mukta Kumari Yadav                                      Madhesi                              Female

64.   Rashmi Thakuar                                               Madhesi                              Female

65.   Pramila Devi Das                                               Madhesi                              Female

66.   Amiya Kumar Yadav                                        Madhesi                              Male                     

67.   Badshah Kurmi                                                  Madhesi                              Male

68.   Haresh Prasad Mahato                                  Madhesi                              Male

69.   Kaushar Shah                                                     Madhesi?                            Male

70.   Lal Babu Singh Bhuihar                                   Madhesi?                            Male

71.   Mahendra Yadav                                              Madhesi                              Male

72.   Ranjit Karna                                                        Madhesi                              Male

73.   Abdul Hamid Siddhiqi                                     Muslim                                 Male

74.   Mohammad Mokhtar Ahmad                     Muslim                                 Male

75.   Sarwat Aara Khatun Halwai                          Muslim                                 Male

76.   Mithu Malla                                                        Newar                                  Female

77.   Rajya Laxmi Shrestha                                     Newar                                  Female

78.   Anjani Shrestha                                                Newar                                  Female

79.   Om Devi Malla Joshi                                        Newar                                  Female

80.   Saraswati Bajimaya                                         Newar                                  Female

81.   Chin Kaji Shrestha                                            Newar                                  Male                      ex-Gorkha MP

82.   Gopal Man Shrestha                                       Newar                                  Male

83.   Manohar Narayan Shrestha                        Newar                                  Male

84.   Sabitri Devi Chaudhary                                  Tharu                                    Female

85.   Shanti Devi Chaudhary                                  Tharu                                    Female

86.   Dilli Bahadur Chaudhary                               Tharu                                    Male                      NGO President

87.   Buddhi Sagar Chaudhary                               Tharu                                    Male

88.   Pradip Giri                                                           Other                                    Male                      NC Leader

89.   Anjana Tamli                                                      ???                                         Female

90.   Suwarna Jwarchan                                          ???                                         Female?

91.   Pyare Lal Rana                                                   ? (Chhetri or Magar)      Male

UML 84 PR NOMINEES – 84 Names

1.       Bidhya Bhandari                                               Brahmin                               Female                 UML Leader

2.       Gauri Oli                                                             Brahmin                               Female

3.       Gaura Prasain                                                    Brahmin                               Female

4.       Kalpana Chapagain                                          Brahmin                               Female

5.       Kamala Subedi                                                  Brahmin                               Female

6.       Sushila Nepal                                                     Brahmin                               Female

7.       Bharat Mohan Adhikari                                 Brahmin                               Male             ex-Finance Minister

8.       Yubraj Gyawali                                                  Brahmin                               Male

9.       Jeevan Ghimire                                                Brahmin                               Male

10.   Kashinath Adhikari                                          Brahmin                               Male

11.   Keshav Badal                                                     ???                                         Male

12.   Pashupati Chaulagain                                     Brahmin                               Male

13.   Bhanubhakta Dhakal                                      Brahmin                               Male

14.   Bhisma Nath Adhikari                                     Brahmin                               Male

15.   Kedar Prasad Sanjel                                        Brahmin                               Male

16.   Man Kumar Gautam                                       Brahmin                               Male

17.   Nirmal Prakash Subedi                                   Brahmin                               Male

18.   Reeta Rawal                                                     Chhetri                                 Female?

19.   Lila Rana                                                            Chhetri?                               Female

20.   Sindhu Jalesa Budhathoki                             Chhetri                                 Female?

21.   Tuka Hamal                                                       Chhetri                                 Female?

22.   Tularaj Bista                                                      Chhetri                                 Female

23.   Amrit Kumar Bohara                                       Chhetri                                 Male                      UML Leader

24.   Bal Bahadur Mahat                                          Chhetri                                 Male

25.   Basundhara Rokaya                                        Chhetri                                 Male

26.   Dhan Bahadur Rayamajhi                             Chhetri                                 Male

27.   Gyan Bahadur Bhujel                                     Chhetri                                 Male

28.   Gyanu Devi Gaire                                            Dalit                                       Female

29.   Sharada Swarnakar                                        Dalit                                       Female

30.   Shiva Kumari Gotame Sarki                          Dalit                                       Female

31.   Bhagwat Nepali                                              Dalit                                       Male

32.   Jit Bahadur Darji Gautam                              Dalit?                                     Male

33.   Ram Awatar Paswan                                       Dalit                                       Male

34.   Satya Narayan Mandal                                   Dalit                                       Male

35.   Teku Nepali                                                       Dalit                                       Male

36.   Madhu Gurung                                                 IP (Gurung)                        Female

37.   Ranjana Majhi                                                   IP (Majhi)                            Female

38.   Dilshova Pun                                                     IP (Magar)                           Female

39.   Nar Devi Pun                                                     IP (Magar)                           Female

40.   Jayanti Rai                                                          IP (Rai)                                  Female

41.   Tara Rai                                                               IP (Rai)                                  Female

42.   Shree Maya Thakali                                         IP (Thakali)                          Female

43.   Gokum Gharti                                                   IP (Gharti)                           Male

44.   Ganesh Man Gurung                                      IP (Gurung)                        Male ex-Chair University Grants

45.   Tul Bahadur Gurung                                        IP (Gurung)                        Male

46.   Mahin Limbu                                                      IP (Limbu)                           Male

47.   Kriparam Rana                                                   IP (Magar)                           Male

48.   Nar Bahadur Thapa                                         IP (Magar)                           Male

49.   Harkabol Rai                                                       IP (Rai)                                  Male

50.   Tschewang Tenjen Lama                              IP (Tamang)                        Male

51.   Ichchha Raj Tamang                                        IP (Tamang)                        Male                      Businessman

52.   Pemba Lama                                                      IP (Tamang)                        Male

53.   Hari Rajbanshi                                                   IP (Terai)                              Male

54.   Mahendra Sherchan                                       IP (Thakali)                          Male

55.   Aasha Yadav
                                                    Madhesi                              Female

56.   Ambika Khawas                                                Madhesi                              Female

57.   Dulari Devi                                                          Madhesi                              Female

58.   Garima Shah                                                      Madhesi                              Female

59.   Shanta Manavi                                                  Madhesi?                            Female

60.   Sheetal Jha                                                         Madhesi                              Female

61.   Ranju Jha Thakur                                              Madhesi                              Female

62.   Ranjana Sarkar                                                  Madhesi                              Female

63.   Kamala Devi Mahato                                      Madhesi                              Female

64.   Mina Devi Yadav                                               Madhesi                              Female

65.   Rajya Laxmi Golchha                                       Madhesi                              Female                 Businesswoman

66.   Banshidhar Mishra                                          Madhesi                              Male

67.   Dharma Nath Sah                                             Madhesi                              Male

68.   Ramchandra Teli Sah                                      Madhesi                              Male

69.   Saniya Prabin Ansari                                       Muslim                                 Male

70.   Junaid Ansari                                                     Muslim                                 Male                     

71.   Aasta Laxmi Shakya                                         Newar                                  Female            Wife UML Leader

72.   Shakuntala Rajbhandari                                  Newar                                  Female

73.   Binod Shrestha                                                 Newar                                  Male

74.   Ganga Lal Tuladhar                                          Newar                                  Male

75.   Siddhi Lal Singh                                                 Newar?                                                Male

76.   Prava Bajracharya                                            Newar                                  Female

77.   Mamata Giri                                                       Other                                    Female

78.   Choodamani Jangali                                        ???                                         Male

79.   Afilal Ukheda                                                     ???                                         Male

80.   Aditya Narayan Kasodhan                            ???                                         Male

81.   Anar Kali Minya                                                 ???                                         Male

82.   Ravani Chaudhary                                            Tharu                                    Female

83.   Bishram Chaudhary                                         Tharu                                    Male

84.   Nagendra Chaudhary                                     Tharu                                    Male

UCPN (Maoist) PR list – 54 Names

1.       Asha Koirala                                                    Brahmin               Female

2.       Bhesh Kumari Raut (Bhattarai)                   Brahmin               Female

3.       Lalita Kumari Regmi                                         Brahmin               Female

4.       Rekha Sharma                                                   Brahmin               Female

5.       Tej Kumari Paudel                                           Brahmin               Female

6.       Dhaniram Paudel                                             Brahmin               Male

7.       Dor Prasad Upadhyay                                    Brahmin               Male

8.       Harilal Gyawali                                                   Brahmin               Male

9.       Krishna Dhital                                                    Brahmin               Male

10.   Bhakti Prasad Pandey                                    Brahmin               Male

11.   Dhan Pahari                                                        Brahmin               Male

12.   Shree Prasad Jawegu                                     Brahmin               Male

13.   Goma Kuwar                                                      Chhetri                 Female

14.   Janaki Kumari Saud Rawal                            Chhetri                 Female

15.   Nisha Kumari Shah                                          Chhetri?               Female

16.   Shreejana Khattri                                             Chhetri                 Female

17.   Pratikchya Tiwari Mukhiya                           Chhetri?               Male

18.   Rabindra Pratap Shah                                     Chhetri                 Male                      ex-IG Police       

19.   Surendra Kumar Karki                                    Chhetri                 Male

20.   Anita Kumari Pariyar                                       Dalit                       Female

21.   Dulari Harijan                                                    Dalit                       Female

22.   Dhan Maya BK Khanal                                    Dalit                       Female

23.   Sita Nepali                                                          Dalit                       Female

24.   Daljit BK Shripaili                                              Dalit                       Male

25.   Karna Bahadur BK                                            Dalit                       Male

26.   Lalendra Kumar Mandal                                 Dalit                       Male

27.   Sambhu Paswan Hajari                                  Dalit                       Male

28.   Tulasa Rana                                                        IP (Magar)?        Female

29.   Punaram Thapa                                                 IP (Magar)?        Female

30.   Radhika Tamang                                               IP (Tamang)        Female

31.   Kamala Dong                                                      IP (Tamang)        Female

32.   Keshari Gharti Magar                                     IP (Magar)           Female

33.   Dil Maya Dhami                                                 IP (Dhami)           Female

34.   Lal Bahadur Gurung                                        IP (Gurung)        Male

35.   Ongdi Sherpa                                                     IP (Sherpa)         Male

36.   Surya Prakas Bala Rai                                      IP (Rai)                  Male

37.   Santa Kumar Darai                                           IP (Darai)             Male

38.   Yogendra Ghising                                             IP (Tamang)        Male

39.   Phuljhari Devi                                                    Madhesi              Female

40.   Soniya Yadav                                                      Madhesi              Female

41.   Aman Lal Modi                                                  Madhesi              Male

42.   Ram Singh Yadav                                              Madhesi              Male

43.   Surendra Prasad Jaisawal                             Madhesi              Male

44.   Usha Kiran Ansari                                             Muslim?               Male

45.   Mohammad Jakir Hussain                            Muslim                 Male

46.   Gopal Giri                                                            Other                    Male

47.   Durga Khuna                                                      ???                         Female

48.   Ajay Shankar Nayak                                        ???                         Male

49.   Mohan Tudu                                                      ???                         Male

50.   Ram Narayan Bidari                                         ???                         Male

51.   Bed Maya Bhandari (Shakya)                      Newar                  Female

52.   Rupa Maharjan Shrestha                              Newar                  Female

53.   Juth Bahadur Tuhure Khadgi                       Newar                  Male

54.   Anjana Chaudhary                                           Tharu                    Female

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